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Annual values of solar, GCR and heliospheric parameters from 1600 to present. (a) Corrected group sunspot number, RG*; (b) Number of auroral nights below 61° geomagnetic latitude; (c) 14C production rate; (d) Average concentration of 10Be at annual resolution (black) and smoothed using a running 1,4,6,4,1 filter window (red); (e) near-Earth heliospheric magnetic field intensity, B, computed from 10Be concentration, in the same format; (f) B estimated from the open solar flux continuity model using RG*. Note that the y-axis direction is inverted for panels (c) and (d), as cosmogenic isotope production falls with rising solar activity.
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