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Climatological maps of different ionospheric parameters from GBSC for spring days. S 4 occurrence (panel a), mean calibrated TEC gradients along N-S direction (in TECU km−1, panel b) and its standard deviation (in TECU km−1, panel e), mean calibrated TEC gradients along E-W direction (in TECU km−1, panel c) and its standard deviation (in TECU km−1, panel f), standard deviation of the calibrated TEC (panel d, in TECU). Black lines represent 15th southern magnetic parallel.
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