Characteristic parameters of Solar System magnetospheres determining planetary space weather. Adapted from Bagenal (2013) and Krupp (2015).
|Solar System body||Magnetopause nose distance||Surface magnetic field at the equator (T)||Dipole tilt1||Obliquity2||Plasma sources3||Plasma composition (main species)||Plasma motion||Plasma β 4||Lifetime|
|Neptune||24 RN||0.14 × 10−4||−47°||29.6°||Triton (solar wind?)||N+, H+||Rotation (and solar wind driven?)||0.2||days|
|Uranus||25 RU||0.23 × 10−4||−59°||97.9°||Ionosphere (solar wind)||H+||Solar wind driven and rotation||0.1||1–30 days|
|Saturn||19 RS||0.22 × 10−4||−0°||26.7°||Enceladus (Rings, Tethys, Dione, Titan, solar wind)6||H2O+, O+, H+||Rotation||1–5||30–50 days|
|Jupiter||42 RJ||4.28 × 10−4||−9.6°||3.1°||Io, Europa (ionosphere)7||On+, Sn+, H+||Rotation||10–100||20–80 days|
|Mercury||1.4–1.6 RM||2 × 10−7||+14°||0°||Solar wind||H+||Solar wind driven||~28||Minutes|
|Ganymede||~2 RG||7.19 × 10−7 5||176°||0.2°||Jupiter’s magnetosphere (Ganymede’s exosphere)||On+, Sn+, H+||Corotation (Jupiter’s magnetosphere driven)||0.49||Min to hours9|
The dominant plasma sources are indicated. In parenthesis we indicate the believed secondary plasma sources.
The plasma β parameter is defined as the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure, β = nkT/(B2/2μ0).
From Kivelson et al. (1996).
Temporal analysis of the auroral power of Ganymede’s footprint reveals variations of different timescales: (a) a 5-h timescale, associated with the periodic flapping of Jupiter’s plasma sheet over Ganymede; (b) a 10–40 min timescale, possibly associated with energetic magnetospheric events, such as plasma injections; (c) a 100-s timescale corresponding to quasi periodic fluctuations, which might relate to bursty reconnections on Ganymede’s magnetopause and/or to the recurrent presence of acceleration structures above Jupiter’s atmosphere. From Grodent et al. (2009).
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