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Long-term hmF2 variations at Rome, June 12LT: squares – calculated from observed M(3000)F2 values using the Shimazaki (1955) formula, asterisks – theory (expression 3), triangles – global empirical model by Shubin (2015). Bottom panel – the same theoretical hmF2 values but in a comparison with hmF2 when model MSIS-86 thermospheric parameters were used in equation (3).
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