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The occurrence of polar patches during S1–S4 events (a–d) depicted with relative STEC values (black line), consecutive sequences of structures labelled with numbers. The solid red line corresponds to 0.5 VTEC at the North Pole, i.e. minimal STEC enhancement for patch structure. The dashed red line is the VTEC for dayside ionosphere (12 MLT, 70° of AACGM latitude). Top panels present variations of geomagnetic indices. IP shocks and minima of SYM-H index for S1–S4 are marked with dashed and solid purple lines, respectively.
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