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Fig. 1

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This figure shows two bit-based series. The “1s” of the top time series shows extreme values from 5-min averaged EUV-based data. The “1s” of the bottom time series is extreme time derivatives from a 5-min differential proton flux. This figure also shows the identification of three “cause-consequence” pairs. A pair, shown in red, is composed of a “1” at time (i) of the top time series and a “1” at time (j) in the bottom time series, and the corresponding pair separation.

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