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Fig. 3


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Indicative map of the main ground-based Space Weather assets showing the coverage provided by Italian Space Weather sensors (shown in blue). The Italian assets make part of the European and global sensor provision, providing thus a potential mutual benefit in a more global Space Weather context. (a) Indicative map of the ground-based Space Weather assets in Europe. (b) and (c) Indicative maps of the ground-based Space Weather assets outside the European territory (in particular, in the Antarctic region and South America, respectively), totally or partially managed by Italian research institutes and universities. Solar emissions in the optical bands are monitored by the Hα and 656.78nm continuum telescope in Catania (INAF-OACt), PSPT (INAF-OAR), and VAMOS (INAF-OACN) (for details see Table 2). Solar emissions in the radio bands are observed by SunDish, the Italian Single-Dish Radio Telescope network (INAF-OACa, INAF-IRA Bologna and Noto, INAF-OATs, UNICA, UNITS, ASI, ASTRON), TSRS 2.0 (INAF-OATs), and the Trieste Callisto System (INAF-OATs) (for details see Table 3). Ionospheric irregularities are monitored by the Dome C East and Dome C North HF radars in the Antarctic region (INAF-IAPS), part of the SuperDARN network, ionosonde and digisonde instruments in Italy, Argentina and the Antarctic region (managed by INGV), and GNSS receivers in Italy, Europe, Argentina, Brazil and the Antarctic region (managed by INGV) (for details see Tables 4 and 7). Geomagnetic field measurements are registered at the geomagnetic observatories operated by INGV (four in Italy and two in the Antarctic region), at the four European SEGMA stations, operated by UNIVAQ, and at the two geomagnetic pulsation facilities in the Antarctic region, operated by UNIVAQ (for details see Table 8 and text). Considering the international assets, the information was obtained mainly from following sources: the “COSPAR roadmap for space weather activities: asset catalogue” document (; the “2017 ISWI Workshop” material, the INTERMAGNET website (, the NMDB website (, material within the NOAA website ( and references therein. We underline that the current figure does not depict the entire network of ground-based Space Weather assets, nevertheless, it provides a rough picture of the distribution of the Italian observatories with respect to the main international capabilities in the field.

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