Open Access

Table 2

INAF Space Weather assets/Solar emissions in the optical bands.

Facility Description Contacts Logistics and ownerships Specifications Data products Data archiving National and international involvements
Hα and 656.78 nm continuum telescope in Catania Daily drawing of sunspots and pores by projection of the Sun; digital image acquisitions (every 10 min) in the Hα line center (656.28 nm), besides monitoring of transient phenomena, like flares and active prominences; digital image acquisition in the continuum at 656.78 nm (every hour) Paolo Romano INAF-OACt Università degli Studi di Catania Wavelenghts: Hα line center (656.28 nm) Images are taken by a CCD camera Apogee Alta U9000-HC D09L with a sensor of 3056 × 3056 pixels, a pixel size of 12 micron and a digital resolution of 16 bit. The digital products consist on reduced images of 2048 × 2048 pixels in JPEG2000 format and on raw images of 2200 × 2200 pixels in FITS format. The latest images in JPEG2000 and FITS format are available in the INAF-OACt website ( The full disc images in photosphere and chromosphere are used during observing campaign at the Dunn Solar Telescope (NSO) and at Swedish Solar Telescope to define the target of high resolution observations.
The data are also provided in near real time to the ESA Space Weather Data Centre ( INAF-OACt provides data for the Global High Resolution Hα Network (GHN;
Continuum near the red wing of the Hα (656.78 nm) The archive, containing the raw FITS files and JPEG2000 images, is open to public. Near-real-time data are also used to monitor, predict and disseminate Space Weather information and alert by ESA in the context of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program (, according to the ESA contract No. 4000113186/15/D/MRP.
INAF-OACt data are also collected by the Royal Observatory of Belgium and by the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory of Budapest
PSPT – Precision Solar Photometric Telescope The PSPT is a 15 cm, low-scattered light, refracting telescope designed for photometric full-disk solar observations characterized by a 0.1% pixel-to-pixel relative photometric precision Ilaria Ermolli INAF-OAR Wavelengths: 393.3 nm (0.10 nm), Filtergrams at the various spectral bands calibrated for instrumental effects; masks of solar features identified on the different filtergrams. The digital products consist on reduced images of 1024 × 1024 pixels in JPEG2000 and FITS formats Data archive: PRIN-MIUR 1998, 2000, 2002
393.3 nm (0.25 nm), Permanent archiving of FITS files on DVD and HD, JPEG-reduced size files on OAR server.
430.6 nm (1.20 nm), Filtergrams available since 1996. CVS Centro per lo studio della variabilita’ solare
409.4 nm (0.25 nm), High cadence data available on request.
535.7 nm (0.50 nm), FP7 eHEROES, SOLID, SOLARNET
607.2 nm (0.50 nm)
Routine and Max Sampling Rate(s): Single frame and sum of 25 frames expositions taken in sequence within a few minutes each day weather permitting; calibration sequences including sum of 25 frames expositions taken each day weather permitting COST ACTION ES1005 TOSCA
Raw image size: (2048 × 2048) pixels
FOV: Full disk IAU WG Coordination of Synoptic Observations of the Sun
Spatial resolution: 1 arcsec/pixel
VAMOS/Hα –Velocity and magnetic observations of the Sun The VAMOS (, operative at the INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, is a narrow-band filter based on the MOF technology. VAMOS is capable of acquiring intensity, velocity, and magnetic field full-disk images in the K I D1 line at 7699 Å with video cadence and medium spatial resolution (4”/pixel) Oliviero Maurizio, INAF-OACN Wavelenght(s): Intensity full disk images (7699Å, 6563Å, white light) Doppler full disk images (7699Å) Magnetic full disk images (7699Å) Solar oscillations power spectra Solar oscillations spherical harmonic coefficients Data are in FITS format on DVDs Space Weather Italian Community (SWICo)
white light
Sampling rate: 4 s (routine); 40 ms (max)
Spatial resolution: 0.5”/px (full-disk), 0.3”/px (limited area)
Data Archives
HISTO-A Historical Solar Data Archive Digital archive of the historical full-disk observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere obtained at the Arcetri and Rome Observatories Ilaria Ermolli INAF-OAR Arcetri: Filtergrams at the various spectral bands calibrated for instrumental effects; masks of solar features identified on the different filtergrams. The digital products are available on JPEG2000 and FITS formats. Data archive: Permanent archiving of FITS files on DVD and HD, JPEG-reduced size files on OAR server. Arcetri data available from 1926 to 1974.Rome data currently available from 1947 onwards. CVS Centro per lo studio della variabilita’ solare
393.3 nm FWHM 0.05 nm (Ca II K – chromosphere) COST Action ES1005 TOSCA
656.3 nm FWHM 0.05 nm (Hα – chromosphere) IAU WG Coordination of Synoptic Observations of the Sun
Rome: ISSI team 2017 “Reconstructing Solar and Heliospheric Magnetic Field Evolution Over the Past Century”
white light (WL – photosphere) 393.3 nm FWHM 0.05 nm (Ca II K – chromosphere)
656.3 nm FWHM 0.05 nm (Hα – chromosphere)
FOV: Full disk
Spatial resolution: better than 1 arcsec/pixel
IBIS-A Data Archive The IBIS data Archive (IBIS-A) contains data acquired with IBIS (Interferometric BIdimensional Spectropolarimeter), an imaging spectro-polarimeter based on a dual Fabry-Perot interferometric system currently installed at the Dunn Solar Telescope in NM, USA. The IBIS-A has been designed to realize the storage, the management, and the retrieval of the IBIS data through a VO compliant archive. Currently, IBIS-A includes 18.4 TB of data taken during 12 observing campaigns carried out from 2012 to 2017 on 85 days. More data are being included. Ilaria Ermolli INAF-OAR IBIS has been built by the INAF Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, with the support of the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy of the University of Florence, and the Dept. of Physics of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, and installed in June 2003 at the Dunn Solar Telescope of the US National Solar Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico. Spectropolarimetric observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere at high spatial (pixel scale of 0.09 arcsec), spectral (>200,000), and temporal resolution (8–15 fps) Sequences of full-Stokes filtergrams taken with a cadence of about 1s at up to three spectral lines sampling the solar atmosphere at three heights on a small section of the solar disk Currently @ INAF OAR and hosted by INAF IA2 Web access, data shipping on DVD/HD. FP7 SOLARNET “High resolution solar physics network” (2013–2017)
5896 Å FWHM 2.0 Å (Na D1)
6302 Å FWHM 2.0 Å (FeI)
6330 Å FWHM 2.0 Å (white light) IBIS – A has been realised in the framework of the FP7 SOLARNET3 High- resolution Solar Physics Network, which aimed at integrating the major European infrastructures in the field of high-resolution solar physics, as a step towards the realisation of the 4m EST, as a joint effort of Italian research groups contributing to the IBIS and EST projects. Joint observations with HINODE, SDO, IRIS
7090 ÅFWHM 2.0Å (FeI)
7224 Å FWHM 2.0 Å (Fe II)
8542 Å FWHM 3.5 Å (Ca II)
SOLAR DATA Archive The SOho Long-term ARchive (SOLAR) hosted at the INAF-OATo contains the scientific data acquired with 11 instruments aboard SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since the beginning of the mission (January 1996). SOLAR provides a system to store, search and retrieve the SOHO instruments observational data. Silvio Giordano INAF-OATo Remote sensing Instruments: The data of all 11 instruments are stored in FITS format as raw (level-1) and calibrated (level-2). The data can be analyzed through SolarSoft procedures. Currently available at the URL: database consists of tables of highly structured record with fixed-length fields. The keywords and fields of the database are defined on the base of the keywords fixed by the instrumental scientific teams. The data base is managed by MySQL PRIN-MIUR 1999 “Sviluppo di SOLAR (SOho Long-term Archive), archivio del Solar and Heliospheric Observatory”.
CDS – Spectrometer – 15.5–78.7 nm The SOLAR database is linked to the Catalog of CMEs detected by UVCS also hosted at OATo SOLAR has been developed in collaboration with NASA/Goddard SOHO Data Archive.
EIT – Disk Imager SOLAR team is presently is supporting the development science archives at ESAC
GOLF – Full Disk
LASCO – Coronal Imager – White Light – Polarization
SUMER – Spectrometer – 33–161 nm
SWAN – Heliospheric Imager – 115 –180 nm
UVCS – Coronal Spectrometer – 48.7–134.9 nm
VIRGO – Full Disk – Total solar Irradiance, spectral solar irradiance at 402, 500 and 862 nm and spectra radiance at 500 nm
In situ Instruments:

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