Open Access

Table 3

INAF Space Weather assets/Solar emissions in the radio bands.

Facility Description Contacts Logistics and ownerships Specifications Data products Data archiving National and international involvements
SunDish Single-Dish Imaging and Monitoring of the Sun in the Centimetre-Millimetre band by Italian Radio Telescopes. Single-Dish Radio Telescopes configurations aimed at spectro-polarimetric imaging and spectral timing of the Solar Corona and Chromosphere in the frequency range 1–50 GHz (with primary goals about continuum imaging in K-band) Alberto Pellizzoni INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari INAF – Istituto di Radioastronomia, Bologna & Noto Application Type: High-frequency radio monitoring of the Sun Spectro-polarimetric imaging and dynamic spectra Continuum and spectro-polarimetric images of the Sun, dynamic spectra on selected regions (mostly K-band and in perspective Q-band) INAF and/or ASI data archiving facilities Italian Radio Telescope Network
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste LOFAR Observations for Space Weather
ASI – Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Università di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Fisica SKA Observations for Space Weather
Università di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica
ASTRON – Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy
Trieste Callisto System Solar radio spectrography in the VHF and UHF bands. Monitoring of coronal solar radio emissions. Alessandro Marassi INAF –Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste Low time resolution, limited receiving band solar radio spectrography with no polarisation information and no radiometric calibration Solar radiometric data (arbitrary units) in the 45–81 MHz and 220–420 bands with radio burst automatic identification Solar radio spectra images (2013–) e-Callisto solar radio spectrograph network
Solar radio spectra FITS files (2013–) ISWI International Space Weather Initiative
Local and global e-Callisto digital archive available via web
TSRS – Trieste Solar Radio System 2.0 Multichannel solar radio polarimetry and spectropolarimetry in the UHF and SHF bands (3 m dish; fully automated system). Monitoring of photospheric, chromospheric and coronal radio emissions with special attention to the solar activity index at 2800 MHz and to the solar radio noise in the L-band for GNSS data quality evaluation Mauro Messerotti INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste Calibrated, high time resolution and high Circular Polrisation accuracy time series at selected frequencies and radio spectra of selected bands. L-band (1350–1450 MHz) 2800 MHz (narrowband) C-band (3–4 GHz) Ku-band (11.5–12.5 GHz) Ka-band (22–23 GHz) Time of operation start: 2019 Q1 Italian Radio Telescope Network
Solar radio time series LOFAR Obervations for Space Weather
Solar radio spectra images SKA Observations for Space Weather
Solar radio spectra images ESA Space Situational Awareness
Solar radio indices Enabling science facility for SolO/Metis
Data available in near-real-time through a web interface and web services
Local archive and long-term preservation archiving in INAF IA2
Data Archives
TSRS –Trieste Solar Radio System 1.0 Multichannel solar radio polarimetry in the VHF and UHF bands (10 m and 3 m dish) Solar radio Interferometry in UHF (400 MHz, two dipole arrays at 100 λ) These data provide information about the coronal plasma emissions. Mauro Messerotti INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste CNR-National Research Council Università di Trieste, Dipartimento di Astronomia Calibrated, High time resolution (50 Hz to 2 kHz sampling rate) and high Circular Polarization accuracy (1%) time series of single-frequency observations Low spatial resolution interferometric observations Radio polarimetric data On paper 239 MHz (1969–70) 235 MHz (1970–71) 237 MHz (1971–79) Data on paper recordings only (1969–2003) Data in digital format (1975–1994; events) Data in digital format (1997–2010; all) The data in digital format are stored in I INAF IA2 for long-term preservation. Space Weather data for USAF
In digital format 237, 327, 408, 505, 610, 790 MHz (1979–95)
Stop for upgrade (1995–97) Solar radio monitoring for ESA Space Weather European Network
Restart (1997) 237, 327, 408, 610, 1420, 2695 MHz (1997/99–2010) Stop for lightning stroke (2010)
Radio interferometric data Enabling science facility in support of SOHO/UVCS
On paper 408 MHz (1979–82)

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