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Table 4

INAF Space Weather assets/Ionospheric irregularities in HF radar pulses.

Facility Description Contacts Logistics and ownerships Specifications Data products Data archiving National and international involvements
Dome C East (DCE) and Dome C North (DCN) HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) SuperDARN is an international network of HF ionospheric radars dedicated to the study of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The DCE and DCN HF radars are located at the Concordia Antarctic research station and they have been realized in the framework of a collaboration between INAF-IAPS, Rome, LPC2E-CNRS, Orléans and CNR with the support of PNRA and INAF from the Italian side and by IPEV and INSU from the French side. They emit pulses of HF waves (8–20 MHz), which are refracted in the ionosphere so that, at distances ranging from 180 to 3550 km from each radar and at heights between 100 and 400 km, they can be back-scattered by field aligned decameter scale irregularities of the electron density. The radar signals are steered in 16 emission beams, separated by 3.3°, in an azimuthal interval of 52°, usually swept in 2 min. SuperDARN continuously measures ionospheric convection in the southern and northern medium auroral zones and polar caps. Recently, the SuperDARN coverage has extended to the medium latitudes over a great portion of the Northern Hemisphere. Maria Federica Marcucci Concordia Station, Antarctica INAF-IAPS Dipartimento Terra Ambiente – CNR, Reti e Sistemi Informativi – CNR, INGV and all the research institutes from the ten nations participating in the SuperDARN network (Australia, Canada, China, France, Italy, Japan, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States of America) Routine and Max Sampling Rate: 1 min for the execution of a normal scan of the field of view. The time resolution for the sounding along a single beam is 3.75 s Field of view: 52°, Spatial resolution: Range resolution is 45 km Operating modes: The DCE and DCN operating modes are determined and regulated in the general framework of SuperDARN operating modes, defined in the SuperDARN PI Agreement Time series of the the reflected power, the VD Doppler velocity of the irregularities, and the spectral width of each distance -azimuth cell of the DCE and DCN field of view. These data can be elaborated and merged with data from the others SuperDARN radar to obtain the global convection map of the southern hemisphere high latitude ionosphere. Different archives of DCE and DCN data exist: one is located at INAF-IAPS. Besides the INAF-IAPS archive, DCE and DCN data are stored at the Virginia Tech SuperDARN repository and at the two mirror sites of the British Antarctic Survey and of the University of Saskatchewn. All SuperDARN radar, comprising the DCE and DCN data, can be downloaded from the following three websites: DCE and DCN constitute a permanent observatory in the framework of the National Program for Antarctic research DCE and DCN radars are part of the international HF ionospheric radar network SuperDARN with 35 radar sites around the globe, managed by sixteen institutes in ten countries The SuperDARN network as global and each single radar perform dedicated measurements campaign in support of several space mission: Cluster, MMS, THEMIS and ARASE
DCE and DCN data usage is regulated by the CC License BY-NC-ND. Publications using DCE and DCN data should acknowledge INAF-IAPS and PNRA support.

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