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Table 9

Scientific research related to circumterrestrial and planetary Space Weather in the context of past, current and future space missions with Italian payload contribution.

Mission Instrument Participating Research Institutes in Italy Observation technique Type of data Period covered by the data Key science goals related to Space Weather
ESA/JAXA SERENA (Italian PI-ship) INAF-IAPS et al. In situ neutral and ionized particle detection Images and particle flux October 2018–2026 (nominal mission) Characterization of the solar wind-driven Space Weather at Mercury
ESA CIS INAF-IAPS et al. In situ proton-alpha and heavy ions detection with Top-Hat electrostatic analyser Ions 3D distributions 2001–present (extended to 31st December 2022; subject to a mid-term review in 2020) 3-D characterization of plasma structures
CNSA LIMADOU/HEPD INFN; UNITOV; UNITN et al. Particle detection Single particle/particle flux February 2018–present Measurement of the increase of the electron and proton fluxes due to short-time perturbations of the radiation belts
CNSA LIMADOU/EFD INFN; UNITOV; INAF-IAPS et al. Electric field detection Waveform (1 Hz–2 kHz)/Spectrum (1 kHz–5 MHz) February 2018–present Measurement of the variation of the ionosphere electric field due to perturbations driven by the solar activity
ESA-CNSA HIA INAF-IAPS et al. In situ ions detection with Top-Hat electrostatic analyser Ions 3D distributions 2003–2008 The data provided by the two Double Star s/c integrated the CLUSTER data, to provide unprecedented multi-point measurements of the near-Earth space.
Double Star
NASA (Rocket Program) SCORE (Italian PI-ship) INAF-OATo; UNIFI; UNIPD et al. VL, UV & EUV coronal imaging VL, UV (H Ly α) & EUV (He II Ly α) Images 2009 flight First measurement of the helium abundance and outflow velocity in the solar corona;
Herschel Mapping of the solar wind outflows;
Identification of the physical properties of the outer solar corona
ISS ALTEA UNITOV et al. Particle detection Particle flux LET August 2006–Novomber 2012, not continuous Radiation environment measurements in the ISS
ISS AMS-2 INFN; UNIBO; UNIMI Bicocca; UNIPG; UNIRoma1; UNIPI; UNITN Particle detection Particle flux for nuclear species, electron, positrons, anti-protons May 2011–present (≥2024) Measurements of cosmic ray flux and composition in the GeV–TeV energy range;
Time profile of the energy spectrum and flux intensity for proton and alpha particles, electrons and positrons, heavier nuclei (C, O, …);
Measurements of SEPs.
NASA JIRAM (Italian leadership) INAF-IAPS; CNR-ISAC Rome; CNR-ISAC Bologna Image IR spectrometry Images and Spectra 2016–2021 (foreseen) Investigation of the H3 + aurora at Jupiter
ESA ASPIICS INAF-OATo et al. Multi-band VL coronol imaging Launch foreseen in 2021 Characterization of the solar wind in the inner corona, prominence formation, prominence eruption and CME early evolution
Proba 3
ESA/NASA UVCS (Italian CoPI-ship) UNIFI; UNITO; UNIPD; INAF-OATo; INAF-Arcetri; INAF-OACt; et al. UV Spectroscopy Spectra (945–1123 Å, 473–561 Å, 1160–1350 Å) 1996–2012 24 h/day observations Identification of the solar wind sources;
SOHO Images (reconstructed from spectral data) Diagnostics of the solar wind heating and acceleration processes;
Investigation of CME evolution in the outer corona and of CME shock front and energetic particle acceleration
ESA METIS (Italian PI-ship) INAF-OATo; UNIFI; UNIPD; INAF-OACt; INAF-OAC et al. VL and UV coronagraph imaging VL, UV (H Ly α) Images Launch foreseen in 2020 Identification of the solar wind sources;
Solar Orbiter Characterization of large scale solar wind properties;
Investigation of the origin, evolution and propagation of CMEs
ESA SWA (Italian CoPI-ship) INAF-IAPS et al. In situ electron, proton-alpha and heavy ion detection by Top-Hat electrostatic analyser with deflectors Ions 3D distributions Launch foreseen in 2020 Investigation of solar wind fundamental processes (e.g., acceleration, heating and ICME evolution) and their connection to the Sun’s corona
Solar Orbiter
Roscosmos PAMELA (Italian leadership) INFN, UNITOV et al. Particle detection Particle flux June 2006–January 2016 Measurements of SEPs in space;
Resurs-DK1 Reconstruction of proton and helium energy spectra and time profiles

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