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Time-of-year/time-of-day (F-UT) plots of (a) the SML index; (b) the number of substorm onsets No, per F-UT bin per year defined using SML and Pα; (c) the SMR index and (d) the average rate of decreases in of SMR. Data are for 1995–2017, inclusive, and in cases, values in a given F-UT bin are normalized to the overall mean value.
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