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Analysis of the relative influences of large southward IMF in the GSEQ frame and of the R-M effect. In each panel the x-axis is [BS]GSEQ, as defined by equation (4) and data are binned into 30 bins of width 0.5 nT between 0 and 15 nT. The R-M effect is quantified by how much the southward field in the GSM frame is enhanced over [BS]GSEQ, i.e. ([BS]GSM − [BS]GSEQ) which is the y axis in each panel and the data are sorted into 24 bins of bins of width 0.25 nT between −6 nT and +6 nT. The panels show for each bin (a) the logarithm of the number of samples, N, (b) the mean normalized power into the magnetosphere 〈Pα/Po〉; (c) the mean am index 〈am〉; (d) the fraction am samples that exceed the 95% quantile, f[am > q(0.95)]; (e) the mean of the Dst index 〈Dst〉; (f) the fraction Dst samples that exceed the 95% quantile, f[Dst > q(0.95)]. Note all data used in parts (a)–(d) are 3-hourly means, but the IMF averaging intervals have been shifted 1 h forward relative to the 3-hour am intervls to allow for the optimum am reponse lag. In parts (e) and (f) the Dst data are again 3-hourly means, but the IMF data are means over the previous 12 h which gives the optimum correlation (Lockwood et al., 2016). These plots for Dst were also made using the same three-hourly IMF averaging intervals used for am in parts (c) and (d) and the results were essentially the same (not shown). In all panels only values for bins containing more than five samples are shown. Data are for 1995–2017, inclusive.
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