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The two IMF orientation factors in solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling functions used in this paper: (blue) sin4(θGSM/2), where θGSM is the IMF clock angle in the GSM frame, and (red) [BS]GSM/BYZ, where is the halfwave-rectified southward field in the GSM frame and is the magnitude of the field in the Y-Z plane (which is the same for the GSE, GSEQ and GSM frames). Both are plotted as a function of .
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