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Figure 5

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Predictions of the variations with fraction of year, F, for the various mechanisms, (a) shows the annual variations of the various angles involved: (blue) the heliographic latitude of Earth, ΛH; (mauve) the dipole tilt, ϕ; (green) the angle βGSE between the Z axes in the GSM and GSE frames of reference; (black) the angle βGSEQ between the Z axes in the GSM and GSEQ frames of reference. The values shown are averages over daily intervals. (b) Factors based on these daily-mean angles: (blue) |sin(ΛH)|, the axial effect for an increase in solar wind power with distance away from the solar equator; (mauve) cos(ϕ), a factor that displays the equinoctial effect; (green) |sin(βGSE)|, the IMF [BZ]GSM component (in nT) for an IMF B = [BY]GSE = 1 nT and a half-wave rectification coupling function; (black) |sin(βGSEQ)|, the IMF [BZ]GSM component (in nT) for an IMF B = [BY]GSEQ = 1 nT and a half-wave rectification coupling function. Note the difference between the black solid line which is for daily means of βGSEQ, |sin(〈βGSEQ〉)|, and the black dashed line which is for daily means of sin(βGSEQ), |〈sin(βGSEQ)〉|: the averaging of the UT variation means these are not the same on days when higher resolution βGSEQ values (on minute or hour timesacles) are a mixture of both polarities: the dashed line decribes the daily mean R-M effect and is the same as that shown at the base of Figure 1e.

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