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Top panel: plots of annual means of an index or variable x, <x>1yr, for the years 1995–2017, inclusive, where x is: (a) the power input into the magnetosphere, Pα; (b) the am index (in black) and the number of substorm onsets derived from the SML index, No (in green); (c) the aσ indices for dawn (orange), noon (cyan), dusk (mauve) and midnight (blue). Middle and lower panels: year-F spectrogram plots of the means in 36 equal-sized bins of F, divided by the mean for that year, <x>F/<x>1yr, where x is: (d) Pα; (e) am; (f) aσmidnight; (g) aσdawn, (h) aσnoon, and (i) aσdusk. The data have been smoothed by applying a 3-point running mean to the time series of means in the bins of width (1/36) yr.
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