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Fig. 3

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Simultaneous data from the years 2001 and 2002. In each case the data have been averaged into 365 equal-sized bins of time-of year F (one day long for these non-leap years) and then a running mean taken over 27 bins to cover whole solar rotation intervals. From top to bottom: (a) the half-wave rectified dawn-to-dusk electric field, EDD, in interplanetary space; (b) the AU index; (c) the AL index; (d) the polar cap flux, WPC, from the DMSP satellite data; (e) the transpolar voltage, ΦPC, from the DMSP satellite data; (f) the reconnection efficiency assuming that the cross-sectional radius of the magnetosphere is 15 RE (where a mean Earth radius 1 RE = 6370 km), η15; (g) the am geomagnetic index; and (h) the ratio of the am index to the transpolar voltage, amPC. In panels (d) and (e) for WPC and ΦPC, the red and blue lines are for the northern and southern polar caps, respectively.

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