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Simultaneous data from the years 2001 and 2002. In each case the data have been averaged into 365 equal-sized bins of time-of year F (one day long for these non-leap years) and then a running mean taken over 27 bins to cover whole solar rotation intervals. From top to bottom: (a) the half-wave rectified dawn-to-dusk electric field, EDD, in interplanetary space; (b) the AU index; (c) the AL index; (d) the polar cap flux, WPC, from the DMSP satellite data; (e) the transpolar voltage, ΦPC, from the DMSP satellite data; (f) the reconnection efficiency assuming that the cross-sectional radius of the magnetosphere is 15 RE (where a mean Earth radius 1 RE = 6370 km), η15; (g) the am geomagnetic index; and (h) the ratio of the am index to the transpolar voltage, am/ΦPC. In panels (d) and (e) for WPC and ΦPC, the red and blue lines are for the northern and southern polar caps, respectively.
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