Fig. 1


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Examples of solar radio data typically used in space weather science and operations. (a) A dynamic spectrum of solar radio bursts. This is the most typical observation type used to observe flares and eruptive activity in the solar corona. Type IIIs indicate electron beam propagation into the heliosphere, the type II represent the driving of a shock (adapted from Pick et al., 2016). (b) Combination of eruption observation in EUV and type II radio sources (pink, orange, and green points), adapted from Bain et al. (2012). (c) Data-driven modelling of the position of type II and III radio sources with respect to the CME (adapted from Magdalenić et al., 2014). (d) Direct observation of a radio CME using the NRH (Bastian et al., 2001); such observations are rare, but can allow for a diagnostic of CME magnetic field close to the Sun (below a few solar radii)

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