Fig. 1


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A segment of solar cycle simulation including surface inflows, with amplitude parameter v 00 = −500 cm s−1. Panel (A): pseudo sunspot number (pSSN) timeseries (solid line); panel (B): surface density of BMR emergences, the simulation’s equivalent to the sunspot butterfly diagram; panel (C): time-latitude diagram of the zonally-averaged surface radial magnetic field; panel (D) time-latitude diagram of the surface latitudinal flow speed, including the contribution from inflows into active region belts. The dashed line on panel (A) is the pSSN time series for a simulation where inflows were artificially turned off during the second cycle (2213 ≤ t ≤ 2225 yr) and resuming afterwards, but otherwise identical.

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