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Observed, conductivity-corrected and modelled UT variations for the (red) an, (blue) as, and (black) am indices. (a) shows the values, an, as, and am linearly interpolated from three hourly observations to 1-hour resolution and then averaged for the 24 1-hour UT values for all data (for 1959–2019, inclusive). (b) shows the conductivity-corrected values ancc = an/PΣN, ascc = as/PΣS and amcc = (ancc + ascc)/2. (c) shows the modelled values, anm, asm and amm = (anm + asm)/2 (d) compares the conductivity corrected values (solid lines) and the modelled values (dot-dash lines) on the same plot.
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