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Variations with fraction of a calendar year, F, for the two polarities of the IMF BY in the GSEQ frame. Normalised mean values, 〈X〉F/Xmax, are shown in bins 1/36 yr wide, with open circles being for [BY]GSEQ > 0 and solid triangles are for [BY]GSEQ < 0. The data are for the interval 1996–2018. 〈X〉F is the mean in each bin of F and Xmax is the largest value of 〈X〉F for a generic parameter X. The blue lines are for the am index; the mauve lines are for the half-wave rectified southward IMF, BS; the black lines are for the power input to the magnetosphere, Pα; the orange line is the half-wave rectified southward field predicted for the R-M effect with IMF clock angle [θ]GSEQ = 90°, [BS]RM: [BS]RM = b − [BZ]RM for [Bz]RM< 0 and [BS]RM = b for [BZ]RM > 0: and where b is the best-fit baselevel value for northward IMF in GSM and [BZ]RM = [BY]GSEQ sin(βGSEQ) is the northward field in GSM obtained by assuming [θ]GSEQ = 90°, βGSEQ being the rotation angle between the GSEQ and GSM frames.
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