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Fig. 4

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Maps of the geographic locations of (left) northern and (right) southern magnetic poles for various years. The orange and blue points are dip and geocentric dipole pole locations from the 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for 1900–2020 in steps of 20 years (from Thébault et al., 2015). The mauve points are the axial poles for the years 1980, 2000 and 2020 from the eccentric dipole model fits (for which the dipole axis is not constrained to pass through the centre of the Earth) of Koochak & Fraser-Smith (2017).

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