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Table 1

List of historic events (location information is given in Appendix B).

Event SSC Dst peak Dst peak Spike-like interval Spike-like duration Positive spike Positive spike MLT Negative spike Negative spike MLT Referencesb
Year month UT day hh:mm (nT) UT day hh day hh–hh (h) Stationa (h) Stationa (h)
1859 Sep ** ** ** 02 05:00–07:00 2 CLA 11 Tsurutani et al. (2003)
1870 Oct 24 09:54 ** ** 24 10:30–11:30 1 COI 10 Vaquero et al. (2008)
1903 Oct 31 06:00 ** ** 31 08:00–10:30 2.5 CUA 2 COI 9 Hayakawa et al. (2020)
1909 Sep 25 08:30 ** ** Bm, BY, Km
25 11:42 25 11:45–13:00 1.25 API 1 SFS/GRW 12 Love et al. (2019b)
VQS 8
MRI 16
1918 Mar 07 21:06 ** ** 07 21:00–23:00 2 HRB 23 Bm, BY
GRW 22 Valach (2017)
08 01:30–02:30 1 HRB 3
GRW 2
1921 May 14 22:12 ** ** 14 22:15–23:45 1.5 KEW 23 API 11 Bm, BY
KAK 8 Cliver and Dietrich (2013)
15 05:30–7:00 1.5 API 19 Hapgood (2019)
1940 Mar 24 13:42 ** ** 24 14:00–15:30 1.5 KAK 0 Km
24 15:36 24 15:30–16:30 1 KAK 1
1958 Feb 11 01:24 −426 11 11 11 01:30–02:30 1 SPT/HAD 2 KAK 11 Sm, Bm, BY, Km
TUC 18
HER 3
PAB 22
1959 Jul 15 08:00 −429 15 19 15 08:30–10:00 1.5 TUC 2 SPT/ESK 9 Sm, Bm, BY, Km
KAK 19 TFS 12
ASH 13
1960 Nov 12 13:48 −339 13 10 12 03:30–05:30 2 SPT/HAD 4 ASH 8 Sm, Bm, BY, Km
12 18:42 PAB 1
SJG 0
TUC 21
1972 Aug 04 01:19 −125 05 04 Km, Ogawa (1986)
04 20:54 04 21:00–23:00 2 HER 23 KAK 7
1982 Jul 13 16:18 −325 14 02 13 17:30–19:00 1.5 SPT/ESK 18 BOU 11 Sm, Bm, BY, Km
MMB 4 Ogawa (1986)
13 19:00–20:30 1.5 SPT/ESK 20 BOU 13
13 21:00–22:30 1.5 SPT/ESK 22 BOU 15
13 23:00–01:00(14) 2 HER 1 KAK 9
1991 Jul 08 16:36 −194 09 15 08 16:40–17:30 0.75 MMB 3 FRD 12 SM, Wilson et al. (2001)
THY 18 FRN 9
a

IAGA code.

b

Sm: Spanish magnetograms, Bm: British magnetograms, BY: British Yearbooks, Km: Kyoto magnetograms, SM: SuperMag.

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