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Fig. 1

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Reconstructed global shape of the auroral zone in 1960 AD (blue) and 2010 AD (red). Contours are apex field intensities of 49, 173, 474, and 6178 nT, corresponding to 70, 65, 60, and 40 magnetic latitudes. Japan’s longitude (135° E) is toward the bottom. The positions of LRV (Leirvogur, Iceland), SOD (Sodankylä, Finland), and CMO (College, Alaska) are marked by crosses.

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