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Figure 3

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Ground-based observations at Syowa Station of the EEP event #1 for a 2-hour period from 2330 UT on July 24, 2018. Shown are the (a) time-varying altitude profile of the echo power as observed by PANSY, (b) time variation of the maximum echo power as calculated from panel (a), (c) CNA at the zenith as observed by the imaging riometer, (d) north-south variation of the aurora, and (e) magnetometer data. The white ellipse in (a) marks the echo at <70 km. The white areas in (a) represent the data gaps. The CNA in panel (c) was averaged over the four beams of the imaging riometer around the zenith and then smoothed with a two-minute moving average. The solid vertical line indicates the beginning of the expansion phase of the substorm. The bottom panels show the all-sky maps of (f) CNA and (g) aurora at 0000 UT on July 25, 2018, indicated by the blue dotted line. The white diamonds in the bottom panels represent the beam directions of the PANSY radar. Note that the bright signatures in the lower left and upper right portions are the contamination from moonlight and its reflection.

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