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Research Article

Table A1

List of the mesospheric echoes at <70 km altitude identified by the PANSY radar during substorms. “Arase conjunction” indicates whether the footprints are located at ±5° in magnetic latitude and ±1 MLT from Syowa Station at the timing of the echoes. “Aurora data” represents whether the sky is clear and the data of the all-sky imager is available. “Substorm phase” is determined from the local magnetic field variation and the all-sky images of aurora. “Max SME” shows peaks of SME index (Gjerloev, 2012) of the substorms.

# Date (yyyy-mm-dd) Time (UT) Arase conjunction Aurora data Substorm phase Max SME [nT] comments
1 2017-05-25 23:05
growth
211 Event #2
23:30 expansion

2 2017-06-17 23:40 × expansion 673  

3 2017-06-30 22:20 expansion 411 Reported by Kataoka et al. (2019)

4 2017-07-11 23:30 × × expansion 463  

5 2017-07-21 23:40 × expansion 641  

6 2017-07-23 00:20 × recovery 559  

7 2017-08-06 00:50 × × unclear 792  

8 2017-09-07 20:45 × growth 3510 During a solar proton event

9 2017-09-08 00:20 × unclear 4455  

10 2017-09-10 21:50 × unclear 666 During a solar proton event

11 2017-09-11 22:50 × × expansion 552 During a solar proton event

12 2018-03-23 23:10 × recovery 865  

13 2018-03-24 00:30 × recovery 865  

14 2018-04-11 01:15
× expansion
1121  
02:05 recovery  

15 2018-05-06 22:05 × expansion 1121  

16 2018-06-02 01:40
× × unclear 1332  
02:00  

17 2018-06-07 21:25 × expansion 180  

18 2018-06-26 20:15 × × expansion 597  

19 2018-06-27 22:20
× × expansion
256
 
00:15 unclear 261  

20 2018-07-24 23:55 growth - expansion 365 Event #1

21 2018-07-25 21:10 × expansion 328  

22 2018-08-21 23:50 unclear 363  

23 2018-08-27 20:15
× × growth
698  
22:00 recovery  

24 2018-08-29 00:10 × × expansion 329  

25 2018-08-30 20:05 × × unclear 401  

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