Fig. 2


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Bottom-up processing applied to Spire high-rate (50 Hz) excess phase data in order to estimate relative sTEC profiles. The left panel shows the L1 excess phase profile (black) for Spire satellite FM100 from Galileo E13 and the linear contribution of the F region estimated from the profile below 80 km. The right panel shows the relative sTEC profile that is obtained after removal of the linear trend.

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