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Table 1

Storms used to optimise the model together with their corresponding Kp, local K-index maxima in Ireland during each storm. Storms of varying strength were studied to see whether storm strength influenced the padding or correction curve. The magnetometer sites (see Fig. 1) used for the SECS interpolation are given in the right column.

Storm Local K maxa Kp maxb Local stations
17–18 March 2015 7 8− BIR, VAL
22–23 June 2015 8 8+ BIR, VAL
08–09 May 2016 6 6+ BIR, VAL
07–08 September 2017 7 8+ ARM, BIR, VAL
27–28 September 2017 5 6+ ARM, BIR, VAL
26–27 August 2018 7 7+ ARM, BIR, VAL

Derived from local magnetometers.


From German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ,

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