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Table 2

The storms were used to validate the model with their corresponding Kp and local K-index maxima in Ireland during each storm. Storms of varying strength were studied to see whether storm strength influenced the padding or correction curve. The magnetometer sites (see Fig. 1) used for the SEC interpolation are given in the right column.

Storm Local K maxa Kp maxb Local stations MT Site
17–18 March 2015 7 8− BIR, VAL B
22 November 2021 6 8− ARM, BIR, VAL C
21 November 2017 5 5 ARM, BIR, VAL D
07–08 September 2017 5 6− ARM, BIR, VAL E

Derived from local magnetometers.


From German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ,

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