Figure 4


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The momentum distributions of the particles in downstream close to the shock (−0.05 R < Z < 0) for no focusing, focusing, and different free-escape boundary simulation cases at a given simulation time, where the focusing and free-escape boundary cases have reached a steady state. The grey dashed line is the canonical power-law of the steady-state DSA theory and the dotted curve on the no-focusing distribution represents the product of the power-law spectrum with the exponential cut-off in energy, exp(−E/Ec).

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