J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 3, 2013
Space Weather and Challenges for Modern Society
Article Number A22
Number of page(s) 10
Published online 25 June 2013
  • Boteler, D.H., R.J. Pirjola, and H. Nevanlinna, The effects of geomagnetic disturbances on electrical systems at the Earth’s surface, Adv. Space Res., 22 (1), 17–27, 1998. [CrossRef]
  • Janzhura, A., O. Troshichev, and P. Stauning, Unified PC indices: Relation to isolated magnetic substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A09207, DOI: 10.1029/2006JA012132, 2007. [CrossRef]
  • Kan, J.R., and L.C. Lee, Energy coupling function and solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo, Geophys. Res. Lett., 6 (7), 577–580, 1979. [NASA ADS] [CrossRef]
  • Kappenman, J., Geomagnetic Storms and their Impacts on the U.S. Power Grid, Metatech Report, Meta-R-319, 197 pp, 2010 (
  • Pirjola, R., Modelling the electric and magnetic fields at the Earth’s surface due to an auroral electrojet, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 60, 1139–1148, 1998. [CrossRef]
  • Pirjola, R. and A. Viljanen, Complex image method for calculating electric and magnetic fields produced by an auroral electrojet of finite length, Ann. Geophys., 16, 1434–1444, 1998 [CrossRef]
  • Pulkkinen, A., S. Lindahl, A. Viljanen, and R. Pirjola, Geomagnetic storm of 29–31 October 2003: Geomagnetically induced currents and their relation to problems in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system, Space Weather, 3, S08C03, DOI: 10.1029/2004SW000123, 2005. [CrossRef]
  • Stauning, P., Modelling electrojet currents causing power line disturbances during large geomagnetic storms, in: R. Gendrin et al. (eds.) ESTEC Proceedings from Space Weather Workshop 17–19 December 2001: Looking towards a European Space Weather Program, 223–226, 2001.
  • Stauning, P., Comment on “The PC index: review of methods” by McCreadie and Menvielle (2010), Ann. Geophys., 29, 1137–1146, 2011. [CrossRef]
  • Stauning, P., The polar cap PC indices. Relations to solar wind and global disturbances, in: M. Lazar (ed.), Exploring the Solar Wind, Intech Publ. Co., ISBN: 978-953-51-339-4, DOI: 10.5772/37359, 2012.
  • Stauning, P., and J. Watermann, High-voltage power-line disturbances and electrojet modelling during large geomagnetic storms, in: H. Sawaya-Lacoste (ed.), Proceedings from SUNSPA Conference 2001, ESA SP477, 521–524, 2002.
  • Stauning, P., O. Troshichev, and A. Janzhura, The polar cap (PC) index. Relations to solar wind parameters and global magnetic activity level, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 70, 2246–2261, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.09.028, 2008. [CrossRef]
  • Thomson, A.W.P., E.B. Dawson, and S.J. Reay, Quantifying extreme behaviour in geomagnetic activity, Space Weather, 9, S10001, DOI: 10.1029/2011SW000696, 2011. [CrossRef]
  • Troshichev, O.A., and V.G. Andrezen, The relationship between interplanetary quantities and magnetic activity in the southern polar cap, Planet. Space Sci., 33, 415–419, 1985. [CrossRef]
  • Troshichev, O.A., V.G. Andrezen, S. Vennerstrom, and E. Friis-Christensen, Magnetic activity in the polar cap – A new index, Planet. Space Sci., 36, 1095–1102, 1988. [CrossRef]
  • Troshichev, O.A., N.P. Dmitrieva, and B.M. Kuznetsov, Polar cap magnetic activity as a signature of substorm development, Planet. Space Sci., 27, 217–221, 1979. [CrossRef]
  • Troshichev, O., A. Janzhura, and P. Stauning, Unified PCN and PCS indices: method of calculation, physical sense, and dependence on the IMF azimuthal and northward components, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05208, 10 pp, DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011402, 2006. [CrossRef]
  • Vennerstrøm, S., The geomagnetic activity index PC, PhD Thesis, Scientific Report 91-3, Danish Meteorological Institute, 105 pp, 1991.
  • Viljanen, A., and R. Pirjola, Statistics on geo-magnetically-induced currents in the finnish 400 kV power system based on recordings of geomagnetic variations, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 41, 411–420, 1989. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen, A., O. Amm, and R. Pirjola, Modelling geomagnetically induced currents during different ionospheric situations, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 28059–28071, 1999. [CrossRef]
  • Viljanen, A., H. Nevanlinna, K. Pajunpää, and A. Pulkkinen, Time derivative of the horizontal geomagnetic field as an activity indicator, Ann. Geophys., 19, 1107–1118, 2001. [CrossRef]
  • Wik, M., A. Viljanen, R. Pirjola, A. Pulkkinen, P. Wintoft, and H. Lundstedt, Calculation of Geomagnetically Induced Currents in the 400 kV Power System in Southern Sweden, Space Weather, 6, S07005, DOI: 10.1029/2007SW000343, 2008. [CrossRef]
  • Wik, M., R. Pirjola, H. Lundstedt, A. Viljanen, P. Wintoft, and A.A. Pulkkinen, Space weather effects in July 1982 and October 2003 and the effects of geomagnetically induced currents on Swedish technical systems, Ann. Geophys., 27, 1775–1787, 2009. [CrossRef]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.