J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 8, 2018
Measurement, Specification and Forecasting of the Solar Energetic Particle Environment and GLEs
|Number of page(s)||35|
|Published online||23 November 2018|
Retrospective analysis of GLEs and estimates of radiation risks
Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of Russian Academy of sciences (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow 108840, Russia
2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119234, Russia
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 21 September 2018
28 February 2017 marked 75 years since the first confident registration of solar cosmic rays (SCRs), i.e., accelerated solar particles with energies from about 106 to ~1010 ÷ 1011 eV. Modern state of the problems related to the studies of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) of relativistic SCRs is critically analyzed based on available direct and proxy data. We are also taking into account extremely large fluxes of non-relativistic solar energetic particles (SEPs). Both kinds of SCR events are of great astrophysical and geo-scientific (geophysical) interests. A number of the GLE properties (total statistics, occurrence rate, longitude distribution, ranking of GLEs, a number of specific GLEs – so-called “rogue” SEP events etc.) are discussed in some detail. We note also the problems of GLE identification (definition) by ground-based observations, the difficulties in the studies of weak (“hidden”, or sub-) GLEs etc. One of serious challenges to the problem of radiation hazard in space is a lack of a clear, unambiguous relation between the fluxes (fluences) of relativistic SCR and non-relativistic SEPs. Special attention is paid to the recent debate on the validity, origin and properties of the “ancient” events AD775, AD994, AD1859 (Carrington event) and BC3372. We demonstrate that, in spite of existing uncertainties in proton fluences above 30 MeV, all of them are fitted well by a unique distribution function, at least, with the present level of solar activity. Extremely large SEP events are shown to obey a probabilistic distribution on their fluences with a sharp break in the range of large fluences (or low probabilities). The studies of this kind may be extended for periods with different levels of solar activity in the past and/or in the future. Dose rates at aircraft altitudes are also demonstrated during some GLEs. Several examples of using the SCR data and GLE properties in radiation prediction schemes are considered.
Key words: Sun / flares / coronal mass ejection / ground level enhancement (GLE) / solar cosmic rays / solar energetic particles / radiation risk / extreme solar events
© L.I. Miroshnichenko, Published by EDP Sciences 2018
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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