J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 8, 2018
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Published online||20 July 2018|
Predicting well-connected SEP events from observations of solar soft X-rays and near-relativistic electrons
Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 16 May 2018
This paper studies the use of electron data from the Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in the UMASEP (University of Málaga Solar particle Event Predictor) scheme [Núñez, Space Weather 9 (2011) S07003; Núñez, Space Weather 13 (2015)] for predicting well-connected >10 MeV Solar Energetic Proton (SEP) events. In this study, the identification of magnetic connection to a solar particle source is done by correlating Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Soft X-Ray (SXR) fluxes with ACE EPAM electrons fluxes with energies of 0.175–0.375 MeV. The forecasting performance of this model, called Well-Connected Prediction with electrons (WCP-electrons), was evaluated for a 16-year period from November 2001 to October 2017. This performance is compared with that of the component of current real-time tool UMASEP-10, called here WCP-protons model, which predicts the same type of events by correlating GOES SXR with differential proton fluxes with energies of 9–500 MeV. For the aforementioned period, the WCP-electrons model obtained a Probability of Detection (POD) of 50.0%, a False Alarm Ratio (FAR) of 39% and an Average Warning Time (AWT) of 1 h 44 min. The WCP-protons model obtained a POD of 78.0%, a FAR of 22% and an AWT of 1 h 3 min. These results show that the use of ACE EPAM electron data in the UMASEP scheme obtained a better anticipation time (additional 41 min on average) but a lower performance in terms of POD and FAR. We also analyzed the use of a combined model, composed of WCP-electrons and WCP-protons, working in parallel (i.e. the combined model issues a forecast when any of the individual models emits a forecast). The combined model obtained the best POD (84%), and a FAR and AWT (34.4% and 1 h 34 min, respectively) which is in between those of the individual models.
Key words: Discipline: Space Weather / Phenomenon: SEP / Discipline: forecasting / Body/medium: Interplanetary medium / Phenomenon: Energetic particle
© M. Núñez, Published by EDP Sciences 2018
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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