J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 8, 2018
Planetary Space Weather
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Published online||03 December 2018|
Shock deceleration in interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) beyond Mercury’s orbit until one AU
Department of Space Physics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Boční II 1401, 141 31
Prague 4, Czech Republic
2 Universities Space Research Association, 21046 Columbia, MD, USA
3 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 20771 Greenbelt, MD, USA
4 Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 180 00 Prague 8, Czech Republic
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 31 October 2018
The CDPP propagation tool is used to propagate interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed at Mercury by MESSENGER to various targets in the inner solar system (VEX, ACE, STEREO-A and B). The deceleration of ICME shock fronts between the orbit of Mercury and 1 AU is studied on the basis of a large dataset. We focus on the interplanetary medium far from the solor corona, to avoid the region where ICME propagation modifications in velocity and direction are the most drastic. Starting with a catalog of 61 ICMEs recorded by MESSENGER, the propagation tool predicts 36 ICME impacts with targets. ICME in situ signatures are investigated close to predicted encounter times based on velocities estimated at MESSENGER and on the default propagation tool velocity (500 km s−1). ICMEs are observed at the targets in 26 cases and interplanetary shocks (not followed by magnetic ejecta) in two cases. Comparing transit velocities between the Sun and MESSENGER () and between MESSENGER and the targets (), we find an average deceleration of 170 km s−1 (28 cases). Comparing to the velocities at the targets (v Tar), average ICME deceleration is about 160 km s−1 (13 cases). Our results show that the ICME shock deceleration is significant beyond Mercury’s orbit. ICME shock arrival times are predicted with an average accuracy of about six hours with a standard deviation of eleven hours. Focusing on two ICMEs detected first at MESSENGER and later on by two targets illustrates our results and the variability in ICME propagations. The shock velocity of an ICME observed at MESSENGER, then at VEX and finally at STEREO-B decreases all the way. Predicting arrivals of potentially effective ICMEs is an important space weather issue. The CDPP propagation tool, in association with in situ measurements between the Sun and the Earth, can permit to update alert status of such arrivals.
Key words: Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) / interplanetary medium / propagation / space weather / multipoint analysis
© B. Grison et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2018
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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