J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 10, 2020
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Published online||18 December 2020|
The soft X-ray Neupert effect as a proxy for solar energetic particle injection
A proof-of-concept physics-based forecasting model
Center for Space Research, North-West University, 2531 Potchefstroom, South Africa
2 Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
3 Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, NASA Research Park, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
4 Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 16 November 2020
The acceleration and injection of solar energetic particles (SEPs) near the Sun is one of the major unsolved problems in contemporary SEP transport modeling efforts. Here, we establish a new approach to the injection problem by utilizing a correlation between the soft X-ray thermal emission in solar flares, and their hard X-ray counterpart, the so-called Neupert effect, which is indicative of the presence of non-thermal particles. We show that the resulting injection function, in the initial phase of the flare, is similar to those inferred from inverting the transport problem based on in-situ observations. For few cases, we find early injections with no in-situ correspondence, that can be caused by particles accelerated before there is a magnetic connection between the source and the spacecraft. The method has limitations for long-duration injections, since it is not applicable to the decay phase of the flare where particle trapping might play a role. For a sample of SEP events in 1980, observed with the Helios-1 and IMP8 spacecraft, we show the results of a 2D SEP transport model based on this approach. We discuss that, with this method, a physics-based, real-time operational SEP now-cast model for the heliosphere is feasible.
Key words: solar energetic particles / injection function / Neupert effect / forecasting / nowcasting
© R. Steyn et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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