J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 11, 2021
Topical Issue - 10 years of JSWSC
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Published online||14 April 2021|
Agora – Education and public outreach
Timelines as a tool for learning about space weather storms
Smead Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department, University of Colorado Boulder (CU), Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
2 CU Space Weather Technology Research and Education Center, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
3 Creative Technology and Design Engineering Department, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
4 Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648601, Japan
5 Institute for Advanced Researches, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648601, Japan
6 UK Solar System Data Centre, Space Physics and Operations Division, RAL Space, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, UK
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 8 March 2021
Space weather storms typically have solar, interplanetary, geophysical and societal-effect components that overlap in time, making it hard for students and novices to determine cause-and-effect relationships and relative timing. To address this issue, we use timelines to provide context for space weather storms of different intensities. First, we present a timeline and tabular description for the great auroral storms of the last 500 years as an example for space climate. The graphical summary for these 14 events suggests that they occur about every 40–60 years, although the distribution of such events is far from even. One outstanding event in 1770 may qualify as a one-in-500-year auroral event, based on duration. Additionally, we present two examples that describe space weather storms using solar, geospace and effects categories. The first of these is for the prolonged storm sequence of late January 1938 that produced low-latitude auroras and space weather impacts on mature technology (telegraphs) and on high frequency radio communication for aviation, which was a developing technology. To illustrate storm effects in the space-age, we produce a detailed timeline for the strong December 2006 geomagnetic storm that impacted numerous space-based technologies for monitoring space weather and for communication and navigation. During this event there were numerous navigations system disturbances and hardware disruptions. We adopt terminology developed in many previous space weather studies and blend it with historical accounts to create graphical timelines to help organize and disentangle the events presented herein.
Key words: space weather / great auroral storms / intense magnetic storms / visualization / storm effects
© D.J. Knipp et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2021
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