J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 11, 2021
Topical Issue - 10 years of JSWSC
|Number of page(s)||13|
|Published online||22 July 2021|
Agora – Scientific reflections
Changes in the Total Solar Irradiance and climatic effects
Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos World Radiation Centre, Dorfstrasse 33, 7260 Davos Dorf, Switzerland
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 16 April 2021
The correlation between the averaged reconstructed March temperature record for Kyoto, Japan, and the reconstructed Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) irradiance over 660 years from 1230 to 1890 gives evidence with 98% probability that the Little Ice Age with four cold periods is forced by variations of TSI. If the correlation is restricted to the period 1650–1890, with two cold periods in the 17th and 19th century and for which two independent reconstructed March temperature records are available, the probability of solar forcing increases to 99.99%. As solar irradiance variations have a global effect there has to be a global climatic solar forcing impact. However, by how much global temperature were lower during these minima and with what amplitude TSI was varying is not accurately known. The two quantities, global temperature and TSI, are linked by the energy equilibrium equation for the Earth system. The derivation of this equation with respect to a variation of the solar irradiance has two terms: A direct forcing term, which can be derived analytically and quantified accurately from the Stefan-Boltzmann law, and a second term, describing indirect influences on the surface temperature. If a small TSI variation should force a large temperature variation, then it has to be the second indirect term that strongly amplifies the effect of the direct forcing. The current knowledge is summarized by three statements:
During the minima periods in the 13th, 15/16th, 17th, and 19th centuries the terrestrial climate was colder by 0.5–1.5 °C;
Indirect Top-down and Bottom-up mechanisms do not amplify direct forcing by a large amount, i.e. indirect solar forcing is of the same magnitude (or smaller) as direct solar forcing;
The radiative output of the Sun cannot be lower by more than 2 Wm−2 below the measured present-day TSI value during solar cycle minimum.
Key words: Total solar irradiance / TSI / Observations / Radiometry / Space mission / Maunder minimum / Terrestrial climate / Climate variations
© W.K. Schmutz, Published by EDP Sciences 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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