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(a) The monthly sunspot number. (b) The GPS phase scintillation occurrence rate (σϕ ≥ 0.1 rad) as a function of MLT and month of year. The solar elevation angles of 0° and 30° at 110 km altitude above Ny-Ålesund are shown in white curves. (c) The monthly GPS phase scintillation occurrence rate around noon (11–13 MLT, magenta), midnight (22–01 MLT, black), and averaged over all local times (blue). The green solid and dashed vertical lines present the spring and autumn equinoxes, respectively.
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