Open Access
J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 8, 2018
Article Number A48
Number of page(s) 13
Published online 23 October 2018
  • Aarons J. 1982. Global Morphology of Ionospheric Scintillations. Proc. IEEE. 70 (4): 360–378. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Aarons J, Mullen JP, Whitney HE, Johnson AL, Weber EJ. 1981. Uhf Scintillation Activity over Polar Latitudes. Geophys Res Lett 8 (3): 277–280. doi:10.1029/GL008i003p00277. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Aarons J, Lin B, Mendillo M, Liou K, Codrescu M. 2000. Global Positioning System phase fluctuations and ultraviolet images from the polar satellite. J Geophys Res Space 105 (A3): 5201–5213. Doi: 10.1029/1999ja900409 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Alfonsi L, Spogli L, De Franceschi G, Romano V, Aquino M, Dodson A, Mitchell CN. 2011. Bipolar climatology of GPS ionospheric scintillation at solar minimum. Radio Sci 46, (RS0D05). DOI:10.1029/2010RS004571. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Alfonsi L, Spogli L, Pezzopane M, Romano V, Zuccheretti E, De Franceschi G, Cabrera MA, Ezquer RG. 2013. Comparative analysis of spread-F signature and GPS scintillation occurrences at Tucuman, Argentina. J Geophys Res-Space. 118 (7): 4483–4502. doi: 10.1002/jgra.50378 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Basu S, Mackenzie E, Basu S. 1988. Ionospheric Constraints on Vhf Uhf Communications Links during Solar Maximum and Minimum Periods. Radio Sci 23 (3): 363–378. doi:10.1029/RS023i003p00363 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Basu S, Basu S, MacKenzie E, Whitney HE. 1985. Morphology of phase and intensity scintillations in the auroral oval and polar cap. Radio Sci 20 (3): 347–356. Doi: 10.1029/RS020i003p00347. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Basu S, Groves KM, Basu S, Sultan PJ. 2002. Specification and forecasting of scintillations in communication/navigation links: current status and future plans. J Atmos Sol-Terr Phys 64 (16): 1745–1754. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-6826(02)00124-4. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Basu S, MacKenzie E, Costa E, Fougere P, Carlson H, Whitney H. 1987. 250 MHz/GHz scintillation parameters in the equatorial, polar, and auroral environments. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 5 (2): 102–115. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Basu S, Basu S, Mackenzie E, Coley WR, Sharber JR, Hoegy WR. 1990. Plasma Structuring by the Gradient Drift Instability at High-Latitudes and Comparison with Velocity Shear Driven Processes. J Geophys Res Space 95 (A6): 7799–7818. doi:10.1029/JA095iA06p07799 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Basu S, Basu S, Costa E, Bryant C, Valladares C, Livingston R. 1991. Interplanetary magnetic field control of drifts and anisotropy of high-latitude irregularities. Radio Sci 26 (4): 1079–1103. doi: 10.1029/91RS00586 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Basu S, Weber EJ, Bullett TW, Keskinen MJ, MacKenzie E, Doherty P, Sheehan R, Kuenzler H, Ning P, Bongiolatti J. 1998. Characteristics of plasma structuring in the cusp/cleft region at Svalbard. Radio Sci 33 (6): 1885–1899. doi:10.1029/98RS01597 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Breed A, Goodwin G. 1997. Ionospheric slab thickness and total electron content determined in Australia. Radio Sci 32 (4): 1635–1643. doi: 10.1029/97RS00454 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Cai H, Ma S, Fan Y, Liu Y, Schlegel K. 2008. Climatological features of electron density in the polar ionosphere from long-term observations of EISCAT/ESR radar. Ann Geophys 25: 2561–2569. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Carlson HC. 2012. Sharpening our thinking about polar cap ionospheric patch morphology, research, and mitigation techniques. Radio Sci 47 (RS0L21), doi:10.1029/2011RS004946 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Carlson HC, Oksavik K, Moen J. 2008. On a new process for cusp irregularity production. Ann Geophys Germany 26 (9): 2871–2885. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Carlson HC, Pedersen T, Basu S, Keskinen M, Moen J. 2007. Case for a new process, not mechanism, for cusp irregularity production. J Geophys Res Space 112 (A11304), doi:10.1029/2007JA012384 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Clausen LBN, Moen JI, Hosokawa K, Holmes JM. 2016. GPS scintillations in the high latitudes during periods of dayside and nightside reconnection. J Geophys Res Space 121 (4): 3293–3309. DOI: 10.1002/2015ja022199. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Ghezelbash M, Koustov A, Themens D, Jayachandran P. 2014. Seasonal and diurnal variations of PolarDARN F region echo occurrence in the polar cap and their causes. J Geophys Res Space Phys 119 (12): 10426–10439. DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020726. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Hathaway D. 2015. The solar cycle. Living Rev Solar Phys 12: lrsp-2015-4. DOI: 10.1007/lrsp-2015-4. [NASA ADS] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Hey JS, Parsons SJ, Phillips JW. 1946. Fluctuations in cosmic radiation at radio-frequencies. Nature 158 (4007): 234–34. [Google Scholar]
  • Holzworth R, Meng CI. 1975. Mathematical representation of the auroral oval. Geophys Res Lett 2 (9): 377–380. DOI: 10.1029/GL002i009p00377. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Jin Y, Moen JI, Miloch WJ. 2014. GPS scintillation effects associated with polar cap patches and substorm auroral activity: direct comparison. J Space Weather Space 4 (A23). DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2014019. [Google Scholar]
  • Jin Y, Moen JI, Miloch WJ. 2015. On the collocation of the cusp aurora and the GPS phase scintillation: A statistical study. J Geophys Res Space edited 9176–9191. doi:10.1002/2015JA021449 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Jin Y, Moen JI, Miloch WJ, Clausen LBN, Oksavik K. 2016. Statistical study of the GNSS phase scintillation associated with two types of auroral blobs. J Geophys Res-Space 121 (5): 4679–4697. DOI: 10.1002/2016ja022613. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Jin Y, Moen JI, Oksavik K, Spicher A, Clausen LBN, Miloch WJ. 2017. GPS scintillations associated with cusp dynamics and polar cap patches. J Space Weather Space 7. DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2017022. [Google Scholar]
  • Kan J, Lee L. 1979. Energy coupling function and solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo. Geophys Res Lett 6 (7): 577–580. [NASA ADS] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Kelley MC, Vickrey JF, Carlson CW, Torbert R. 1982. On the Origin and Spatial Extent of High-Latitude F-Region Irregularities. J Geophys Res-Space 87(Na6): 4469–4475. doi:10.1029/JA087iA06p04469. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Keskinen MJ, Ossakow SL. 1983. Theories of High-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities – a Review. Radio Sci 18 (6): 1077–1091. DOI: 10.1029/RS018i006p01077 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Keskinen MJ, Mitchell HG, Fedder JA, Satyanarayana P, Zalesak ST, Huba JD. 1988. Nonlinear Evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the High-Latitude Ionosphere. J Geophys Res: Space Phys 93 (A1): 137–152. DOI:10.1029/JA093iA01p00137 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • King JH, Papitashvili NE. 2005. Solar wind spatial scales in and comparisons of hourly Wind and ACE plasma and magnetic field data. J Geophys Res-Space 110 (A2). DOI:10.1029/2004JA010649 . [Google Scholar]
  • Kintner PM, Ledvina BM, De Paula ER. 2007. GPS and ionospheric scintillations. Space Weather 5 (9): DOI: 10.1029/2006sw000260. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Kivanc O, Heelis RA. 1997. Structures in ionospheric number density and velocity associated with polar cap ionization patches. J Geophys Res Space 102 (A1): 307–318. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Li G, Ning BQ, Ren ZP, Hu LH. 2010. Statistics of GPS ionospheric scintillation and irregularities over polar regions at solar minimum. GPS Solut 14 (4): 331–341. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lockwood M, Moen J, van Eyken AP, Davies JA, Oksavik K, McCrea IW. 2005. Motion of the dayside polar cap boundary during substorm cycles: I. Observations of pulses in the magnetopause reconnection rate. Ann Geophys Germany 23 (11): 3495–3511. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lockwood M, Owens MJ, Barnard LA, Bentley S, Scott CJ, Watt CE. 2016. On the origins and timescales of geoeffective IMF. Space Weather 14 (6): 406–432. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Lorentzen DA, Shumilov N, Moen J. 2004. Drifting airglow patches in relation to tail reconnection. Geophys Res Lett 31 (2), doi:10.1029/2003GL017785 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Milan S, Yeoman T, Lester M. 1998. The dayside auroral zone as a hard target for coherent HF radars. Geophys Res Lett 25 (19): 3717–3720. DOI:10.1029/98GL02781 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Mitchell CN, Alfonsi L, De Franceschi G, Lester M, Romano V, Wernik AW. 2005. GPS TEC and scintillation measurements from the polar ionosphere during the October 2003 storm. Geophys Res Lett 32 (12), doi:10.1029/2004GL021644 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Brekke A. 1993. The solar flux influence on quiet time conductances in the auroral ionosphere. Geophys Res Lett 20 (10): 971–974. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, van Eyken AP, Carlson HC. 2001a. EISCAT Svalbard Radar observations of ionospheric plasma dynamics in relation to dayside auroral transients. J Geophys Res Space 106 (A10): 21453–21461. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Walker IK, Kersley L, Milan SE. 2002. On the generation of cusp HF backscatter irregularities. J Geophys Res-Space 107 (A4). [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Gulbrandsen N, Lorentzen DA, Carlson HC. 2007. On the MLT distribution of F region polar cap patches at night. Geophys Res Lett 34 (14). [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Hosokawa K, Gulbrandsen N, Clausen LBN. 2015. On the symmetry of ionospheric polar cap patch exits around magnetic midnight. J Geophys Res Space 120 (9): 7785–7797. DOI: 10.1002/2014ja020914. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Qiu XC, Carlson HC, Fujii R, McCrea IW. 2008. On the diurnal variability in F2-region plasma density above the EISCAT Svalbard radar. Ann Geophys Germany 26 (8): 2427–2433. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Oksavik K, Alfonsi L, Daabakk Y, Romano V, Spogli L. 2013. Space weather challenges of the polar cap ionosphere. J Space Weather Space 3 [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Carlson HC, Milan SE, Shumilov N, Lybekk B, Sandholt PE, Lester M. 2001b. On the collocation between dayside auroral activity and coherent HF radar backscatter. Ann Geophys-Atm Hydr 18 (12): 1531–1549. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Lockwood M, Oksavik K, Carlson HC, Denig WF, van Eyken AP, McCrea IW. 2004. The dynamics and relationships of precipitation, temperature and convection boundaries in the dayside auroral ionosphere. Ann Geophys Germany 22 (6): 1973–1987. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Oksavik K, Abe T, Lester M, Saito Y, Bekkeng TA, Jacobsen KS. 2012. First in-situ measurements of HF radar echoing targets. Geophys Res Lett 39. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Moen J, Carlson HC, Oksavik K, Nielsen CP, Pryse SE, Middleton HR, McCrea IW, Gallop P. 2006. EISCAT observations of plasma patches at sub-auroral cusp latitudes. Ann Geophys-Germany 24 (9): 2363–2374. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Newell PT, Meng CI. 1989. Dipole Tilt Angle Effects on the Latitude of the Cusp and Cleft Low-Latitude Boundary-Layer. J Geophys Res Space 94 (A6): 6949–6953. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Newell PT, Meng CI, Sibeck DG, Lepping R. 1989. Some Low-Altitude Cusp Dependencies on the Interplanetary Magnetic-Field. J Geophys Res Space 94 (A7): 8921–8927. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Newell PT, Sotirelis T, Liou K, Meng CI, Rich FJ. 2006. Cusp latitude and the optimal solar wind coupling function. J Geophys Res Space 111 (A9). [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Newell PT, Sotirelis T, Liou K, Meng CI, Rich FJ. 2007. A nearly universal solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function inferred from 10 magnetospheric state variables. J Geophys Res Space 112 (1). [Google Scholar]
  • Oksavik K, Moen J, Carlson HC. 2004. High-resolution observations of the small-scale flow pattern associated with a poleward moving auroral form in the cusp. Geophys Res Lett 31 (11). DOI:10.1029/2004GL019838 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Oksavik K, Moen JI, Rekaa EH, Carlson HC, Lester M. 2011. Reversed flow events in the cusp ionosphere detected by SuperDARN HF radars. J Geophys Res-Space 116. DOI:10.1029/2011JA016788. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Oksavik K, Moen J, Lester M, Bekkeng TA, Bekkeng JK. 2012. In situ measurements of plasma irregularity growth in the cusp ionosphere. J Geophys Res-Space 117. DOI:10.1029/2012JA017835 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Oksavik K, van der Meeren C, Lorentzen DA, Baddeley LJ, Moen J. 2015. Scintillation and loss of signal lock from poleward moving auroral forms in the cusp ionosphere. J Geophys Res-Space 120 (10): 9161–9175. DOI: 10.1002/2015ja021528. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Oksavik K, Moen J, Carlson HC, Greenwald RA, Milan SE, Lester M, Denig WF, Barnes RJ. 2005. Multi-instrument mapping of the small-scale flow dynamics related to a cusp auroral transient. Ann Geophys Germany 23 (7): 2657–2670. DOI:10.5194/angeo-23-2657-2005 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Prikryl P, Jayachandran PT, Mushini SC, Chadwick R. 2011. Climatology of GPS phase scintillation and HF radar backscatter for the high-latitude ionosphere under solar minimum conditions. Ann Geophys Germany 29 (2): 377–392. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Prikryl P, Jayachandran PT, Mushini SC, Richardson IG. 2012. Toward the probabilistic forecasting of high-latitude GPS phase scintillation. Space Weather 10. doi:10.1029/2012SW000800 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Prikryl P, Jayachandran PT, Chadwick R, Kelly TD. 2015. Climatology of GPS phase scintillation at northern high latitudes for the period from 2008 to 2013. Ann Geophys Germany 33 (5): 531–545. DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-531-2015. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Prikryl P, Jayachandran PT, Mushini SC, Pokhotelov D, MacDougall JW, Donovan E, Spanswick E, St Maurice JP. 2010. GPS TEC, scintillation and cycle slips observed at high latitudes during solar minimum. Ann Geophys-Germany 28 (6): 1307–1316. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Priyadarshi S, Zhang QH, Ma YZ, Wang Y, Xing ZY. 2016. Observations and modeling of ionospheric scintillations at South Pole during six X-class solar flares in 2013. J Geophys Res Space Phys 121 (6): 5737–5751. doi:10.1002/2016JA022833 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Rietveld M, Wright J, Zabotin N, Pitteway M. 2008. The Tromsø dynasonde. Polar Sci 2 (1): 55–71. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Rinne Y, Moen J, Oksavik K, Carlson HC. 2007. Reversed flow events in the winter cusp ionosphere observed by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Svalbard radar. J Geophys Res Space 112 (10). DOI:10.1029/2007JA012366 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Rino CL. 1979. Power Law Phase Screen Model for Ionospheric Scintillation. 2. Strong Scatter. Radio Sci 14 (6): 1147–1155. doi:10.1029/RS014i006p01135 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Rino CL, Livingston RC, Tsunoda RT, Robinson RM, Vickrey JF, Senior C, Cousins MD, Owen J, Klobuchar JA. 1983. Recent Studies of the Structure and Morphology of Auroral-Zone F-Region Irregularities. Radio Sci 18 (6): 1167–1180. doi:10.1029/RS018i006p01167 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Ruohoniemi J, Greenwald R. 1997. Rates of scattering occurrence in routine HF radar observations during solar cycle maximum. Radio Sci 32 (3): 1051–1070. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Russell C, McPherron R. 1973. Semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity. J Geophys Res 78 (1): 92–108. [NASA ADS] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Sandholt PE, Farrugia CJ, Moen J, Noraberg O, Lybekk B, Sten T, Hansen T. 1998. A classification of dayside auroral forms and activities as a function of interplanetary magnetic field orientation. J Geophys Res-Space 103 (A10): 23325–23345. doi:10.1029/98JA02156 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Schunk RW, Sojka JJ. 1987. A theoretical study of the lifetime and transport of large ionospheric density structures. J Geophys Res Space Phys 92 (11): 12343–12351. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Spicher A, Clausen LBN, Miloch WJ, Lofstad V, Jin Y, Moen JI. 2017. Interhemispheric study of polar cap patch occurrence based on Swarm in situ data. J Geophys Res-Space 122 (3): 3837–3851. DOI: 10.1002/2016ja023750. [Google Scholar]
  • Spicher A, Cameron T, Grono EM, Yakymenko KN, Buchert SC, Clausen LBN, Knudsen DJ, McWilliams KA, Moen JI. 2015. Observation of polar cap patches and calculation of gradient drift instability growth times: A Swarm case study. Geophys Res Lett 42 (2): 201–206. DOI: 10.1002/2014gl062590. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Spogli L, Alfonsi L, De Franceschi G, Romano V, Aquino MHO, Dodson A. 2009. Climatology of GPS ionospheric scintillations over high and mid-latitude European regions. Ann Geophys-Germany 27 (9): 3429–3437. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Spogli L, Alfonsi L, Romano V, De Franceschi G, Monico JFG, Shimabukuro MH, Bougard B, Aquino M. 2013. Assessing the GNSS scintillation climate over Brazil under increasing solar activity. J Atmos Sol-Terr Phys 105: 199–206. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Themens DR, Jayachandran P. 2016. Solar activity variability in the IRI at high latitudes: Comparisons with GPS total electron content. J Geophys Res Space Phys 121 (4): 3793–3807. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Tsurutani BT, Gonzalez WD, Gonzalez AL, Guarnieri FL, Gopalswamy N, Grande M, Kamide Y, Kasahara Y, Lu G, Mann I. 2006. Corotating solar wind streams and recurrent geomagnetic activity: A review. J Geophys Res Space Phys 111 (A7). [Google Scholar]
  • van der Meeren C, Oksavik K, Lorentzen D, Moen JI, Romano V. 2014. GPS scintillation and irregularities at the front of an ionization tongue in the nightside polar ionosphere. J Geophys Res Space Phys 119 (10): 8624–8636. DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020114. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • van der Meeren C, Oksavik K, Lorentzen DA, Rietveld MT, Clausen LB. 2015. Severe and localized GNSS scintillation at the poleward edge of the nightside auroral oval during intense substorm aurora. J Geophys Res Space Phys 120 (12): 10607–10621. DOI:10.1002/2015JA021819 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Van Dierendonck AJ, Klobuchar J, Hua Q. 1993. Ionospheric Scintillation Monitoring Using Commercial Single Frequency C/A Code Receivers. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 6th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GPS 1993), Salt Lake City, UT, September 22–24, 1993. [Google Scholar]
  • Vickrey JF, Kelley MC. 1982. The Effects of a Conducting E-Layer on Classical F-Region Cross-Field Plasma-Diffusion. J Geophys Res Space 87 (Na6): 4461–4468. doi:10.1029/JA087iA06p04461 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Wang Y, Zhang QH, Jayachandran P, Lockwood M, Zhang SR, Moen J, Xing ZY, Ma YZ, Lester M. 2016. A comparison between large-scale irregularities and scintillations in the polar ionosphere. Geophys Res Lett 43 (10): 4790–4798. DOI:10.1002/2016GL069230 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Weber EJ, Klobuchar JA, Buchau J, Carlson HC, Livingston RC, Delabeaujardiere O, Mccready M, Moore JG, Bishop GJ. 1986. Polar cap-F layer patches – structure and dynamics. J Geophys Res Space 91 (11): 2121–2129. doi:10.1029/JA091iA11p12121 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Wernik AW, Secan JA, Fremouw EJ. 2003. Ionospheric irregularities and scintillation. Space Weather 31 (4), 971–981. DOI: 10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00795-0. [Google Scholar]
  • Wood A, Pryse S. 2010. Seasonal influence on polar cap patches in the high-latitude nightside ionosphere. J Geophys Res Space Phys 115 (7). [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Yeh KC, Liu CH. 1982. Radiowave scintillations in the ionosphere. Proc IEEE 70 (4): 324–360. [NASA ADS] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zabotin N, Wright J, Zhbankov G. 2006. NeXtYZ: Three-dimensional electron density inversion for dynasonde ionograms. Radio Sci 41 (6). [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zhang QH, Ma YZ, Jayachandran P, Moen J, Lockwood M, Zhang YL, Foster J, Zhang SR, Wang Y, Themens D. 2017. Polar cap hot patches: Enhanced density structures different from the classical patches in the ionosphere. Geophys Res Lett 44 (16): 8159–8167. DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073439 . [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zhang QH, et al. 2013. Direct Observations of the Evolution of Polar Cap Ionization Patches. Science 339 (6127): 1597–1600. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  • Zhao H, Zong QG. 2012. Seasonal and diurnal variation of geomagnetic activity: Russell-McPherron effect during different IMF polarity and/or extreme solar wind conditions. J Geophys Res Space Phys 117 (11). [Google Scholar]
  • Zou L, Rishbeth H, Müller-Wodarg I, Aylward A, Millward G, Fuller-Rowell T, Idenden D, Moffett R. 2000. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer. I. Modelling. Ann Geophys 18: 927–944. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.