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Fig. 8

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Average variations with (a) time-of-year, F, and (b) Universal Time, UT. The blue lines are for the cosine of the angle tilt angle ϕ, the mauve lines are for the magnetic shear across the hinge point in the tail, ΔB, and the black line is the fractional increase in total energy in the tail (between X GSE = −5 R E and X GSE = −50 R E) for IMF B z of −6 nT compared to zero IMF B z, ΔTL. For ΔB and ΔTL two features are seen that are found in geomagnetic data (see Fig. 15 of Paper 2) but are not present in the cos(ϕ) variation: (1) in the F variation, the December minimum is deeper than the June minimum; (2) the UT variation shows a minimum at 0-8 UT. Both are consequences of the hemispheric asymmetry in the magnetopause model which arises from the hemispheric asymmetry in the geomagnetic field.

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