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(A) Time series of total magnetic energy in a 11,000 years segment of a 50,000 years realization of simulation 4. Time is expressed both in units diffusion time (bottom axis) and in years (top axis). The oscillations from the primary cycle have been removed, leaving only the long-term modulation envelope. Epochs of grand maxima and minima are indicated in red and blue, respectively. Compare to Figure 3 in Usoskin et al. (2007). The vertical dashed lines delineate the time interval spanned by Figure 8. The four other panels show histograms of (B) Grand Minima durations, (C) waiting times between successive Grand Minima, (D) Grand Maxima durations, and (E) waiting times between successive Grand Maxima (see text).
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