Fig. 1


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Reconstructed averaged March temperatures at Kyoto, Japan (green dotted line) adapted from Aono & Kazui (2008) and Aono & Saito (2010), where historical records were available since 643 and reconstructed averaged March temperatures at Edo bay (Tokyo), Japan, (green dashed line) starting in 1640 adapted from Aono (2015) using historically recorded dates of cherry blossom2. Both time series were smoothed by using a 31-yr linear regression. The mean of the temperature curves at the two locations is illustrated by the thick black line. The blue lines starting in 1880 show thermometer measured temperatures in Kyoto (dotted line) and Edo bay (dashed line) averaged in the same way. Also shown is the 21-year reconstructed TSI as published by Egorova et al., 2018b (red line, scale on the right axis).

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