Fig. A.3


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Reconstructed averaged March temperatures at Kyoto, Japan (open green circles) adapted from Aono & Kazui (2008) and bias-corrected temperatures (green diamonds), compared to temperatures calculated from 15-year averages of TSI according to Egorova et al. (2018b) (red line). The reconstructed temperatures are 15-year averages for which at least 10 yearly values are available. For years later than 1400, there are no gaps of 15-year averaged temperature records but for earlier years there are gaps in the 15-year sampled record. The coefficients cTSI to calculate a temperature from a TSI value and ctime to calculate the linear time-bias are given in Table A.1 in the row 1410–1890. Grand solar activity minima periods are indicated: W Wolf, S Spörer, M Maunder, and D Dalton minimum.

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