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An illustration of cusp accelerated ion outflow due to soft electron precipitation and wave-particle interactions as modeled by PWOM; adapted from (Glocer et al., 2018). The top panel shows the PWOM computed ion distribution function along a single field line and demonstrates the ion conic evolution with altitude. Here v∥ and v⊥ are the parallel and perpendicular velocity and the color contour shows the log of phase space density in normalized, dimensionless, units. The bottom panel shows the global simulation, including the kinetic processes in the cusp using 896 field lines. Here uO and uH are the bulk field aligned velocities for O+ and H+ in units of km/s, and Te is the electron temperature in Kelvin.
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