J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 12, 2022
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||11 November 2022|
On the global ionospheric diurnal double maxima based on GPS vertical total electron content
College of Geomatics, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, CAS, Wuhan 430077, China
3 Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Spatial Information Engineering, Beijing 100045, China
4 School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
5 Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 21 October 2022
Ionospheric diurnal double maxima (DDM) is a twin-peak pattern in the ionospheric electron density/total electron content (TEC) during the daytime. Understanding the characteristics of DDM is essential to study the physical mechanisms of the ionosphere. In this paper, the vertical TEC data (VTEC) in 2019–2020 derived from 537 globally distributed GPS stations were used to investigate the DDM phenomenon. The results reveal that the occurrence rate of DDMs is roughly quasi-symmetrical about the magnetic equator. In the northern hemisphere, it first increases, then decreases, and finally increases with the increase of magnetic latitude. The DDM phenomenon also exhibits significant seasonal variation. It mainly appears in summer/winter in the northern/southern hemisphere, and the valley and the second peak usually appear earlier in winter and later in summer. According to the difference in the magnitude of the two peaks of DDM, the DDM phenomenon is mainly manifested as the front peak significant type or the posterior peak significant type. The probability of the former shows an M-shaped variation with increasing longitude in the middle and high latitudes of the northern hemisphere and an inverted V-shaped variation in the high latitudes of the southern hemisphere within 180°W~60°W. The probability of the posterior peak significant type shows a trend opposite to the front peak significant type in each area. The occurrence time of DDM structures is usually about one hour later in low-latitude regions than in other regions, and the duration is usually shorter than in other regions. The relative magnitude of the DDM’s twin peaks in low-latitude regions is usually smaller than in other regions.
Key words: Diurnal Double Maxima / GPS / VTEC / Occurrence rate
© P. Chen et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2022
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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