J. Space Weather Space Clim.
Volume 13, 2023
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Published online||10 October 2023|
Observational evidence of thermospheric wind and composition changes and the resulting ionospheric disturbances in the European sector during extreme geomagnetic storms
Space Science Division, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea
2 University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea
3 Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, 26 Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21990, Republic of Korea
4 College of Natural Sciences, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 9 September 2023
On November 1st and 2nd, 2021, four Halo coronal mass ejections were ejected from the Sun, releasing billions of tons of high-energy particles into interplanetary space. These were directed towards the Earth and reached our planet on November 3rd and 4th, 2021, generating the first G3-level extreme geomagnetic storm since the beginning of the 25th solar cycle. In this study, we investigate the thermospheric and ionospheric responses in the European sector to a G3-level storm using various observational data from Fabry-Perot interferometer, Ionospheric Connection Explorer/Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (ICON/MIGHTI), and Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Global Ultraviolet Imager (TIMED/GUVI). The results show positive ionospheric storms in the middle and low latitudes of Europe which may be associated with the equatorward and westward neutral winds induced by heating in the polar region. In contrast, negative storms were detected at high latitudes in association with the increase in thermospheric density (upwelling). These two antithetical responses were confirmed by using European ionosonde and total electron contents (TEC) observation chains distributed over a wide range of latitudes. Finally, we, for the first time, attempt to identify the imaginary boundary line between the two responses.
Key words: Ionosphere responses / Geomagnetic storm / CMEs / Zonal and meridional winds / TID induced by TAD
© J. Kim et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2023
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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