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Fig. 9

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Suprathermal moments in the auroral oval during nighttime. Upper left panel: from left to right, suprathermal electron density computed in this work, compared to the thermal one provided by IRI (Bilitza et al., 2012). Right panel: suprathermal velocity. Lower left pannel: from left to right, thermal electron temperature provided by IRI, suprathermal electron temperature (dashed line: mean temperature; full line: specific temperature; dotted line: total suprathermal electron temperature). Right panel: suprathermal heat flux. With respect to equation (13), we have from left to right: χ 2(z) in dotted line, χ 5(z) in dot-dashed line, full line χ(z), along the 0 abscissa are χ 3(z) and χ 4(z) which are negligible at this scale compared to the other quantities, and finally on the right side is χ 1(z) in dashed line. The velocity and the heat fluxes are positive downward.

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