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Northward propagating LSTID (dotted lines) starting in the southern hemisphere, crossing the equator and propagating into the northern hemisphere. Shown is the difference between observed TEC and an unperturbed TEC background. Latitude is geographic. The geomagnetic equator is located about 10° north of the geographic equator. Figure kindly provided by Zama Katamzi-Joseph, South African National Space Agency.
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