Topical Issue - 10 years of JSWSC
Open Access
Agora – Education and public outreach

Table 1

Details of events in Figure 1: Date, geographic latitude/longitude, magnetic storm strength estimates (Dst or Dcx), and other relevant information from references or databases.

Year Geographic Lat/Lon°/′ Storm strength Recent representative references Remarks
8 Mar 1582 N 33 14 Great* Willis & Stephenson (2000) Mid-latitude visibility for 3 nights, as well
E 131 36 * Hattori et al. (2019)
2 Mar 1653 N 34 59 Strong–Severe* Willis & Stephenson (2000) During Maunder Minimum
E115 32 * Isobe et al. (2019) No reported sunspots
15 Feb 1730 N 34 59 Great* * Hayakawa et al. (2018a) Considerable brightness at low latitude
E135 47
17 Sep 1770 N 28 51 Great* Willis et al. (1996) Low latitude aurora for 9 nights
E112 37 * Hayakawa et al. (2017)
Ebihara et al. (2017)
Kataoka & Iwahashi (2017)
14 Nov 1789 N 19 26 No estimate published * Vázquez et al. (2006)
W 99 08
17 Nov 1848 N 17 44 No estimate published Lang (1849) Europe and America
W 64 41
28/29 Aug N 8 59 Great * Siscoe et al. (2006) Two great auroral storms
W 79 31 Dst_est* ~ −900 nT Hayakawa et al. (2018b)
3/4 Sep 1859 S 19 0 Hayakawa et al. (2019a) Very bright aurora
* Hayakawa et al. (2020a)
E 149 0 * Cliver & Dietrich (2013)
24–25 Oct 1870 N 30 5 No estimate published * Vaquero et al. (2008) 2 Sudden Storm Commencements (SSCs)
E31 23
4–6 Feb 1872 N 30 0 Great Silverman (2008) 1 SSC
E 120 35 Dst_est* < −830 nT Hayakawa et al. (2018c) Aurora possibly as low as 10° MLAT
Bekli & Chadou (2020)
25 Sep 1909 N 33 51 Great Silverman (1995) 2 SSCs
E 132 47 Dst_est*= −595 nT * Hayakawa et al. (2019b)
* Love et al. (2019a)
13–16 May 1921 S 13 48 Great Silverman & Cliver (2001) 4 SSCs
W 171 45 Dst_est* = −907 nT * Love et al. (2019b)
Hapgood (2019)
16–26 Jan 1938 N 39 42 Severe Hayakawa et al. (2021a) Three distinct storms
E 141 09 Dcx = −336 nT# Two great auroral storms
S 31 50 4 SSCs
E 15 30
11 Feb 1958 N 19 26 Great Rivera-Terrezas & Gonzalez (1964) 1 SSC
W 99 08 Dst = −426 nT** Kataoka et al. (2019)
Kataoka and Kazama (2019)
13–14 Mar 1989 S 24 08 Great Allen et al. (1989) 2 SSCs
E 49 10 Dst = −589 nT** Silverman (2006)
Boteler (2019)
*

Estimated storm strength from *citations,

#

Dcx = reconstructed Dst Index from University of Oulu http://dcx.oulu.fi/?link=main.

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