Topical Issue - 10 years of JSWSC
Open Access
Agora – Education and public outreach

Table 2

CSAGI magnetic storm events with mid-latitude aurora.

Date Approximate auroral visibility ° MLAT Storm strength Reference Comment
17 and 22 Nov 1882 39 Great * Love (2018) Telegraph disruptions (see reference)
Dst_est = −386 nT*
31 Oct 1903 40 Great * Hayakawa et al. (2020b) Telegraph disruptions (see reference)
Dst_est = −531 nT*
16 April 1938 41 Severe Nicholson & Sternberg-Mulders (1939)
Dcx = −255 nT*
24 Mar 1940 41 Great Nicholson (1940) Power disruption (see reference)
Dcx = −366 nT** Araki (2014)
1 Mar 1941 35 Great Hayakawa et al. (2021b) Polar cap absorption
Dst_est ≤ −464 nT*
18 Sep 1941 Near 40 Great Love & Coïsson (2016) Radio and grid disruption, military impacts (see reference)
Albuquerque Journal (1941)
Dcx = −359 nT** McNish (1941)
28 Mar 1946 < 42 Great Hayakawa, et al. (2020c) Radio disruption to transatlantic aviation Odenwald (2007)
Dst_est ≤ −512 nT
21–22 Sep 1946 Strong Araki (2014) Remarkable SC
Dcx = −163 nT* GICs
*

Storm strength estimated from citations or published indices, Dcx = reconstructed Dst Index from University of Oulu.

**

Storm Strength also reported as Dst/Dcx values in Cliver & Svalgaard (2004).

Note some Dcx values may be derived from off scale-magnetograms and thus underestimate the actual magnitude.

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